0

Killer whales in captivity: guest post by Ben Stockwell

My latest Kate on Conservation guest blog post explores the reality of orcas in captivity. Just two weeks after a new film detailing the story of Tokitae (renamed Lolita by Miami Seaquarium) was shared online, this post from Ben Stockwell was inspired by his Geography dissertation, and reminds us all why the issue of orca captivity is one we should still be talking about after the death of SeaWorld’s Tilikum.

Exploitation or Conservation Education?  

sea world tilikum

In 2014 I wrote my undergraduate Geography dissertation, entitled Killer whales in captivity: Exploitation or Conservation and Education?  Since then, public and media attention around the topic has soared as a result of Gabriela Cowperthwaite’s incredible Blackfish released in 2013.

The documentary followed the life of SeaWorld’s prized bull orca, Tillikum, and his involvement in the tragic deaths of three people, highlighting the issues with keeping such large, intelligent animals captive along the way.  

Whilst publication of the topic is not in short supply, I couldn’t let this stop me (finally) sharing some of my findings. I have chosen to focus on my favourite section of the project, which looked at the pros and cons of anthropomorphising orcas (assigning them human characteristics). Now this might not seem like a good way of arguing for or against keeping orcas captive, but just bear with me.  

Humans certainly have a desire to label things, especially in ways that we can relate to. Take pets; we give them human names and assign them human characteristics. A good example is the viral sensation ‘Grumpy Cat’, whose underbite and feline dwarfism induced ‘grumpy’ face made her a social media sensation (she even has her own movie, Grumpy Cat’s Worst Christmas Ever!). By identifying animals, such as a (grumpy) cat, as having shared features and even emotions with us, we can empathise and relate to them, forming tighter bonds.    

In the case of SeaWorld, these bonds are developed via the naming of their orcas, say Tilikum, or even ‘Tilly’ for short. Additionally, the orca perform human actions throughout the show, splashing the crowd and blowing raspberries — a playful act that signifies their intelligence and further helps us empathise with them. They reinforce this message by referring to trainers and orcas as being part of ‘one really big family’ and each orca having a ‘unique personality’. 

Sea world, Florida

The shows combine anthropomorphisation of the orca with repeated messaging about our ‘one ocean’ that is under threat, which through ‘conservation and education’, ‘we’ can help to protect. I do actually think that these techniques will inspire many watching about the species and their natural habitats. You only need to look at dogs and cats, animals we have forever anthropomorphised, and look how well we treat them!  

However, this all needs to be considered in the context of these being wild animals living in unnatural circumstances. Suggesting they are ‘one big family’ is simply not true, as the artificial pods in captivity are often highly dysfunctional, comprised of individuals from sub-species thrown together in a small pool. The result is often raised levels of aggression towards each other (and humans), high levels of stress and abnormal behaviours.  

Similarly, applying human characteristics to animals, like names and human behaviours, hardly educates the public about orcas in the wild (or even the issues they face). Yes, being able to blow bubbles on command is impressive, but it’s not a natural behaviour that would occur without our interference. I think this provides very little educational value to the shows and whilst they do attempt to inspire the audience to relate to the orca, I would be very interested to know how many people go on to donate to conservation efforts as a result.  

In fact, it is highly likely that this form of consumptive tourism attributes to some of the issues orca face in the wild anyways. Think about the number of single-use plastics sold at SeaWorld – how many of those end up in in the marine environment? Even SeaWorld’s own orca have a legacy of damaging wild populations – the Southern Resident population is now Endangered, largely as a result of the 47 individuals killed or captured by the industry in the 60s and 70s. I suppose there is a strange irony that this staged spectacle is sold as a conservation and education tool, whilst it may well have contributed or is still contributing to the plight of wild killer whales (but this is a whole other section of my project, which I won’t bore you with!).

Ben Stockwell, Galapagos Conservation TrustBen Stockwell completed a degree in physical geography, focussing his dissertation on keeping killer whales in captivity, before going on to complete a Masters in Conservation Ecology. Working for Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust, he gained experience in community engagement and urban conservation and is now working for the Galapagos Conservation Trust as the Communications and Membership Assistant.

 

Find out more about whale and dolphin conservation here: http://uk.whales.org/

Share this post:
RSS
Facebook1k
Google+32
Twitter2k
YouTube24
YouTube
LinkedIn712
Instagram2k
Soundcloud15
SOCIALICON
2

Blackfish Tilikum: An homage to his memory and a promise to myself

Tilikum-Seaworld-580-2.jpg

It’s easy to think, after all the media coverage of ‘2016: the year of death’, that it was the worst start to a year that we have had in this country for a while; kicked off by the passing of David Bowie on the 10th January, two days after his 69th birthday. 

Though I felt terrible sadness at the loss of a musical hero, who will tie quite deeply into this story later (more on that to come), I remember the previous year starting off far worse. 

On the Wednesday 7th January 2015, at approximately 10.30am I had just finished signing off that week’s Primary School news bulletin at Discovery Education when my BBC breaking news alert pinged. The story read that the office of a satirical French newspaper had been stormed by gun men. Returning to work after their Christmas break, heads full of January thoughts and imminent news deadlines (just like mine), the editor and staff at Charlie Hebdo barely had time to register what was happening, let alone react. 

One eyewitness account said that someone had thought the gunman was someone staging a ‘joke hold up’ and laughed, before gun shots and screams broke the mood. Ten journalists and two policemen were killed that morning.

Journalists and news editors, people like myself, were angry. They killed the messengers. The public was outraged ‘they killed the cartoonists, they killed the funny guys!’ was one quote that stuck out to me. If memory serves, the Big Issue penned that one.

‘We won’t let terrorists win’, ‘pencils are stronger than bullets’, ‘Je Suis Charlie’ were some of the protest slogans I remember reading. 2015 had started with a very literal bang, and for one moment in time; we all stood up, stood together

and gave a shit.

charlie-hebdo

What does this have to do with the passing of Tilikum, I hear you ask? 

The mood of Britain was rocked and on edge. People gathered in their masses four days later at Trafalgar Square, pledged their allegiance to France, shouting their right to free speech. The streets of London felt alive with the absolute opposite of apathy. 

Six days later; one weekend on from London’s Unity March, and once again London’s streets were filled with angry people of all ages, exercising their right to speak up and be heard. This time it was a different kind of terrorist in the firing line. A terrorist that uses ropes, hoists, imprisonment in glass tanks, and funds their work with a cashflow from unsuspecting tourists. We stood once again on the steps of Trafalgar Square, and this time called out ‘Je Suis Tilikum’.

IMG_6832Me, at the anti Sea World protest in 2015

“I would rather die standing, than live on my knees”

Empty the tanks; close down Sea World; stop the slaughter of dolphins at Taiji Cove. These were our messages that day. Riding a wave of protest that my fellow journalists; slaughtered at their day jobs, had created. We rode that wave for Tilikum, a whale who hadn’t ridden a wave himself in 32 years at that point. 

I was 24 years only at the protest. Tilikum was 34. He has 10 more years on me. And I thought about that a lot. All the great things I’d done in my life. 

Tilikum came to Sea World in 1992, when I was two years old. I was probably just getting to grips with walking a few steps and talking a few simple sentences back then. All the things I’ve done in my life since then… and Tilikum has been in the same tiny part of Sea World‘s Florida park, in the same tank, swimming in the same circles with the same view, day in, day out. All. That. Time.

A wild orca can swim up to 100 miles a day in the wild. A wild killer whale with 10 extra years on me should have a hell of a lot more life experience.

kate snowdon photoA wild orca I encountered in South Africa

I encountered Tilikum once. In real life, in person. Summer 1999, and I was nine years old, on a family holiday to Orlando. These were the days before social media ruled the Internet, before I could sit and read National Geographic from cover to cover, before Blackfish was a documentary that existed to be watched and shared hundreds of thousands of times. 

It felt like an innocent day of family fun, and my overwhelming feeling was that I loved this incredible killer whale and the way he could perform with his ‘carers’ so carefully and gently. I don’t think you can get away with that level of naivety in today’s Information Age. Tilikum was driven mad by his captivity and is now known to have killed three people.

Including his Sea World trainer, in the pool, in front of an audience.

001A family holiday snap from 1999.

Dominic Dyer addressed the crowds back at Trafalgar Square in January 2015, and quoted the words of Charlie Hebdo’s murdered editor “I would rather die standing, than live on my knees”.

I felt the fire in my belly and I vowed to stand for that poor, disturbed, incredibly intelligent orca that I’d seen behind the glass all those years ago.IMG_6843See Dominic Dyer’s full speech and my coverage of the march that day here. 

“Like the dolphins, like dolphins can swim”

There’s a second part to this story. Fast forward one year from the empty the tanks protest, to January 2016. Almost a year to the exact day, David Bowie passed away after a private battle with cancer. 

About a week on, we were back on the streets of London again, this time protesting outside the Japanese embassy.

A crowd, as big as the year before, marched through the streets once more with the message: empty the tanks; close down Sea World; stop the slaughter of dolphins at Taiji Cove.

These three causes are completely interlinked; Taiji Cove is where wild dolphins are rounded up in Japan every year and killed by spears for meat consumption, or the most handsome specimens are captured to be sold into a life in tanks at marine parks like Sea World. 

image

For those who know little about the annual dolphin slaughter at Taiji, Japan, I would highly recommend watching the Academy Award-winning documentary; The Cove. 

As powerful as Blackfish, this tells the story of the other marine mammal that’s most commonly associated with captive performances alongside human trainers; the bottlenose dolphin. 

Significantly, just before the credits on this powerful documentary roll, the song ‘Heroes‘ by David Bowie concludes the film. 

“I, I wish you could swim. Like the dolphins, like dolphins can swim”

I’m reliably told that the artist, knowing the activist film makers were on a low budget, charged as little as he could get away with for the licensing of the song to be used in the film. Despite his affection for Japan, he risked his reputation with the country for the cause of the dolphins.

See my full coverage of the 2016 march here. 

As January kicks off once again with a personally significant loss; this time the passing of a creature whose gaze I once met through thick glass many years ago, I vow to stand up once again, and let my voice be heard.

The annual Taiji dolphin drive slaughter is in full swing once more its season running from September to March, and once again the waters of the Cove will run red with blood, and the ‘lucky’ dolphins who survive the massacre will be sold on to marine park shows across the world to face the same fate as Tilikum. Driven mad in a tiny glass prison.

I promise, to Tilikum, that as long as marine mammals are kept in tanks, I will continue to stand against it.

I will stand, until they can swim free. 

Share this post:
RSS
Facebook1k
Google+32
Twitter2k
YouTube24
YouTube
LinkedIn712
Instagram2k
Soundcloud15
SOCIALICON
2

Making a stand, marching a march.

I am lucky. As a journalist, a blogger and as a human being, I have a voice.

A voice I can use to speak up when I’m angry, when I’m sad and when I see things that are wrong.

Last weekend, I used that voice, for all those reasons, on behalf of creatures that can’t.

IMG_6832

Together with several-hundred people from all walks of life: a lady who rescues dogs from areas of natural disaster, a student moved by the award-winning documentary Blackfish, a television presenter, a BBC producer, even a Game of Thrones star (Maisie Williams) – I marched from Cavendish Square to Trafalgar to voice my disgust against dolphin slaughters in Taiji, Japan, and my anger at the awful conditions and mentally disturbing environment that marine wildlife are kept in at ‘amusement’ park Seaworld.

There are many reasons I hold these views – some I have discussed before, others I probably couldn’t express as elegantly, concisely and graphically as the following footage:

It is hard to admit to ourselves that we have probably, at one point or another, unwittingly and unknowingly contributed to a world that captures, controls and imprisons animals – that directly relates to the hell that is Taiji Cove even. I know I have.

And when I see these old holiday snaps from years gone by – I physically feel sick. But nonetheless, I urge you to take a look, because I can’t truly express what I stand for, without being totally honest and  forward in showing you what I stand against. So let’s be clear: This is what I stand against…

Including my naive and ignorant self that took these photos – because this directly relates to the atrocities of Taiji Cove, and there is no excuse to be ignorant anymore.

IMG_6904The London march may have been and gone, but it is not too late to stand with others against what is wrong.

As fellow my march-ee and long-time inspiration, Born Free President Will Travers, so aptly quoted (see videos following): “Never, never be afraid to do what’s right, especially if the well-being of a person or animal is at stake. Society’s punishments are small compared to the wounds we inflict on our soul when we look the other way.” – Martin Luther King Jnr.

Thank you to everyone I met last weekend for giving me hope that together we can share truths, open minds and even change opinions – and that’s where the tiny ripples begin that change the whole course of the river.

Share this post:
RSS
Facebook1k
Google+32
Twitter2k
YouTube24
YouTube
LinkedIn712
Instagram2k
Soundcloud15
SOCIALICON
2

SeaWorld: Behold, the great water circus!

A family holiday snap, 1999.

A family holiday snap, 1999.

“Connect with animals and explore nature to recognise the important role kids play in the future of our world.” It sounds wonderful, doesn’t it?

Why is it then, that something which claims to mix conservation, kids and fun has seen one part of Richard Branson’s Virgin conglomerate; Virgin America, sever all ties with it?

imageThe answer is one that I’ve grappled with trying to delve into in the best, most succinct, but also most thorough and truthful way for some time now.

On the 14th of October, Virgin America announced it would no longer include SeaWorld in its reward package options following a global online campaign from PETA, and only days earlier, Britain’s biggest and most media-dominating entertainment show; the X Factor, pulled an episode of its Xtra-Factor reflective supplement programme, after campaigners protested against airing footage of the contestants visiting a dolphinarium. It seems people are switching on to the plight of performing marina life – and with good reason, they’re not happy about it.

IMG_5796I was fortunate enough to be given the most enriched and positive education as a child from parents who never ‘pushed’ but always encouraged. When I was aged 9, during a holiday of a lifetime to Orlando, Florida – one which only came into being after the passing of my grandfather – my parents, knowing my love for animals and penchant for fast rides, took my brothers and I to SeaWorld.

IMG_5797Innocently, we clapped and cheered as we watched Shamu the Orca whale push his trainer elegantly through the tank, parting the water, like some Biblical force as the pair glided around the semi-circular length of the arena, splashing excited audiences as they went.

One of our holiday snaps

One of our holiday snaps

Fifteen years later, I sat in horror as I watched the acclaimed documentary, BlackFish, delve into the “amusement park”‘s dark history. And for those who haven’t seen it yet, believe me, it’s dark.

Blakfish_quad_Web_400_300_85The undeniable, barbaric brutality in which orca male Tilikum is torn from his mother; his home; and plunged into a dehabilitating life of punishment and psychiatric torture in the confinement of a tank, resonates something of a war prisoner. It’s painful viewing, but I’ve never believed in turning a blind eye – denying knowledge for one’s own ignorant comfort.

The power of this documentary is that it not only brings to light a truth long-suppressed, but it starts conversations. Although the film was first screened at Sundance Festival in January 2013, the topic seems to have gathered momentum the last few months, appearing on social media aplenty, and I’ve even purchased magazines of late solely on the pre-tense that they contain an article on Tilikum, or SeaWorld at large. photo.phpBut beyond the shocking story of BlackFish, there is something else that peaks my interest about the institution of SeaWorld. Earlier in the summer, I sat in artist Pollyanna Pickering’s beautiful garden alongside Born Free Foundation CEO Will Travers. We discussed some of my musings on the legacy of ‘Wildlife Warrior’ Steve Irwin, and he told me that in March this year Steve’s daughter, Bindi, was named as SeaWorld’s Youth Ambassador.

imageSecond generation ‘wildlife warrior’ Bindi, a Youth Ambassador for some glorified water circus that has ripped Orca’s from the wild and forced them to perform in tanks little bigger than the relative size of a large bathtub?

imageUnder the guise of ‘Generation Nature’, SeaWorld’s crisis control PR strategy is a convincing one to those innocently not ‘in the know’ – just like myself and my family in those afore mentioned moments of enjoying Shamu’s ‘splash zone’ in the Florida sunshine as a child.imageWill Travers, in his own blog, recently suggested that the further PR strategies employed by SeaWorld (namely expanding some of their ‘enclosures’) is about as effective as upgrading your bathtub – except this is a bathtub you have to live in, and can never get out of!

A world without SeaWorld?

A far cry from the blaring megaphones in SeaWorld’s jam-packed auditorium, waving my hands and cheering out loudly when “those from England” were asked to “make some noise”; an adult version of myself bobbed back and forth in a small boat to the rhythm of the ocean’s current, chatting to an American tourist about our home countries and what we loved about them, like how they transitioned so beautifully between the seasons. “Guys!”, a tour guide on our eight-person sea expedition called out, lowering their binoculars and pointing. And we saw her, calf in tow pass right beside the boat, making her incredible journey.

530697_131735146991038_1767785230_n

Sign the petition here: http://action.sumofus.org/a/seaworld-orcas-captivity-california-ban-blackfish/

 

Want to know more about the marine park and dolphinaria industry?

 

 

Share this post:
RSS
Facebook1k
Google+32
Twitter2k
YouTube24
YouTube
LinkedIn712
Instagram2k
Soundcloud15
SOCIALICON